The following description was taken from Wheel End Security – Wheel To Hub by Australian Trucking Association :

This Technical Advisory Procedure (TAP) has been developed by the ATA Industry Technical Council (ITC) to provide operators with key information about commercial vehicle wheel end security to reduce the incidence of commercial vehicle wheel offs. This TAP focuses on the wheel to hub security, but of equal importance, is the security of the wheel hub to the axle. A wheel off can be defined as the separation of a tyre and rim assembly from a vehicle due to the failure of component performance. This failure can be due to component fatigue, installation techniques, maintenance procedures and/or lack of follow up procedures. Wheel offs cause downtime and equipment damage. Of far more importance, they may cause personal injury or a fatality.

This document sets out industry best practice techniques about wheel installation and maintenance procedures to ensure optimum component performance. This will be achieved by the cooperation of the service providers, operators and drivers. This document does not override manufacturer’s specifications and directions. To aid in correctly performing installation and maintenance procedures, this document discusses the types of wheels commonly dealt with in the road transport industry, vehicle jacking and wheel removal techniques. The installation procedures for these common types of wheels and their components are divided into individual sections for the service provider, including maintenance providers, contractors and the driver, plus roadside requirement. Service providers and drivers should comply with company procedures to ensure the best levels of practice are maintained. This is achieved using documented policies such as Service Level Agreements. The routine of the physical checking of wheel assembly components during pre-trip and en-route driver inspections is crucial to ensuring wheel assembly integrity within the transport industry. The methods of performing these inspections are outlined.